13 Names, Dates, People, and Places


This chapter describes a module which may be used for the encodingof names and other phrases descriptive of persons, places, ororganizations, in a manner more detailed than that possible using theelements already provided for these purposes in the Core module. Insection 3.5 Names, Numbers, Dates, Abbreviations, and 住所 it was noted that the elements providedin the core module allow an encoder to specify that a given textsegment is a proper noun, or a referring string, and tospecify the kind of object named or referred to only by supplying avalue for the type attribute. The elements provided by thepresent module allow the encoder to supply a detailedsub-structure for such referring strings, and to distinguishexplicitly between names of persons, places, and organizations.

This module also provides elements for the representation ofinformation about the person, place, or organization to which a givenname is understood to refer and to represent the name itself,independently of its application. In simple terms, where the coremodule allows one simply to represent that a given piece of text is aname, this module allows one further to represent apersonal name, to represent the person beingnamed, and to represent the canonical name being used. Asimilar range is provided for names of places and organizations. Theintended application for this module is in biographical, historical,or geographical data systems such as gazetteers and biographicaldatabases, where these are to be integrated with encoded texts.

The chapter begins by discussing attributes common to many of theelements discussed in the remaining parts of the chapter (13.1 属性クラス Defined by thisModule) before discussing specifically the elementsprovided for the encoding of component parts of personal names(section 13.2.1 人名), place names (section 13.2.3 地名) and organizational names (section 13.2.2 組織名). Elements for encoding personal and organizationaldata are discussed in section 13.3 人物に関するデータ. Elements forthe encoding of geographical data are discussed in section 13.3.4 Places. Finally, elements for encoding onomastic data arediscussed in 13.3.5 規範名, and the detailed encoding ofdates and times is described in section 13.3.6 日付や時間.

13.1 属性クラス Defined by thisModule

Most of the elements made available by this chapter share someimportant characteristics which are expressed by their membership inspecific attribute classes. Members of the class att.naming have specialized attributes whichsupport linkage of a naming element with the entity (person, place,organization) being named; members of the class att.datable have specialized attributes whichsupport a number of ways of normalizing the date or time of the dataencoded by the element concerned.

13.1.1 名前と指示対象の関連付け

As members of the att.naming class,many of the elements described in this chapter share the following attributes:
  • att.naming provides attributes common to elements which refer to named persons, places, organizations etc.
    keyprovides an external means of locating a full definition for the entity being named, such as a database record key or other token.
    nymRef(reference to the canonical name) provides a means of locating the canonical form (nym) of the names associated with the object named by the element bearing it.
    ref(reference) provides an explicit means of locating a full definition for the entity being named by means of a URI.
These attributes are designed to support twodifferent ways of associating a name, of any kind, with its referent,and with its canonical form. The encoder may use these attributes in combination as appropriate. Theref attribute should be used wherever it is possible to supplya direct link such as a URI to indicate the location of canonicalinformation about the referent. For example:
That silly man
<name ref="#DPB1type="person">David Paul Brown</name> has suffered ...
This encoding requires that there exist somewhere a person element with the identifier DBP1, whichwill contain canonical information about this particular person,marked up using the elements discussed in 13.3 人物に関するデータbelow. The same element might alternatively be provided by some other document,of course, which the same attribute could refer to by means of a URI,as explained in 16.2 Pointing Mechanisms:
That silly man
David Paul Brown</name> has suffered
The key attribute is provided for cases where no suchdirect link is required: for example because resolution of the reference iscarried out by some local convention, or because the encoder judgesthat no such resolution is necessary. As an example of the first case,a project might maintain its own local database systemcontaining canonical information about persons and places, each entryin which is accessed by means of some system-specific identifierconstructed in a project-specific way from the value supplied for thekey attribute. 39 As an example of the second case, consider the use ofwell-established codifications such as country or airport codes, whichit is probably unnecessary for an encoder to expand further:
I never fly from <name key="LHRtype="place">Heathrow Airport</name>
<name key="FRtype="place">France</name>

The nymRef attribute has a more specialised use, whereit is the name itself which is of interest rather than the personplace or organization being named. See section 13.3.5 規範名for further discussion.

Members of the att.naming class also inherit the followingattributes from the att.editLike class:
  • att.editLike provides attributes describing the nature of a encoded scholarly intervention or interpretation of any kind.
    resp(responsible party) indicates the agency responsible for the intervention or interpretation, for example an editor or transcriber.
    cert(certainty) signifies the degree of certainty associated with the intervention or interpretation.
This enables an encoder to record the agency responsible for a givenassertion (for example, the name) and the confidence placed in thatassertion by the encoder. 例 are given below.

13.1.2 日付向けの属性

Members of the att.datable classshare the following attributes:
  • att.datable.w3c provides attributes for normalization of elements that contain datable events using the W3C datatypes.
    whensupplies the value of a date or time in a standard form.
    notBeforespecifies the earliest possible date for the event in standard form, e.g. yyyy-mm-dd.
    notAfterspecifies the latest possible date for the event in standard form, e.g. yyyy-mm-dd.
    fromindicates the starting point of the period in standard form.
    toindicates the ending point of the period in standard form.
These attributes can be combined in variousways to provide additional nuances. Consider, for example, the following:
<birth when="1857-03-15">15 March 1857.</birth>
<birth notBefore="1857-03-01notAfter="1857-04-30">Some time
in March or April of 1857.</birth>
<residence from="1857-03-01to="1857-04-30">In March and April of 1857.</residence>
<residence from="1857-03-01notAfter="1857-04-30">From the 1st of March to
some time in April of 1857.</residence>

More specialized standard date formats may also be used, aboutwhich see より表現力のある正規化.

13.2 Names

13.2.1 人名

The core rs and name elements can distinguishnames in a text but are insufficiently powerful to mark their internalcomponents or structure. To conduct nominal record linkage or even tocreate an alphabetically sorted list of personal names, it isimportant to distinguish between a family name, a forename and anhonorary title. Similarly, when confronted with a referencing stringsuch as ‘John, by the grace of God, king of England, lord ofIreland, duke of Normandy and Aquitaine, and count of Anjou’, theanalyst will often wish to distinguish amongst the various constituentelements present, since they provide additional informationabout the status, occupation, or residence of the person to whomthe name belongs. The following elements are provided for these andrelated purposes:
  • persName (personal name) contains a proper noun or proper-noun phrase referring to a person, possibly including any or all of the person's forenames, surnames, honorifics, added names, etc.
  • surname contains a family (inherited) name, as opposed to a given,baptismal, or nick name.
  • forename contains a forename, given or baptismal name.
  • roleName contains a name component which indicates that the referent has aparticular role or position in society, such as an official title orrank.
  • addName (additional name) contains an additional name component, such as a nickname, epithet, or alias, or any other descriptive phrase used within apersonal name.
  • nameLink contains a connecting phrase or link used within a name but notregarded as part of it, such as van der or of.
  • genName (generational name component) contains a name component used to distinguish otherwise similarnames on the basis of the relative ages or generations of the persons named.
In addition to the att.naming attributes mentionedabove, all of the above elements are members of the class att.personal, and thus share the followingattributes:
  • att.personal (attributes for components of personal names) common attributes for those elements which form part of a personalname.
    fullindicates whether the name component is given in full, as anabbreviation or simply as an initial.
    sortspecifies the sort order of the name component in relationto others within the personal name.
The persName element may be used in preference to thegeneral name element irrespective of whether or not thecomponents of the personal name are also to be marked. The element persName is synonymous with theelement name type="person", except that its typeattribute allows for further subcategorization of the personal nameitself, for example as a married, maiden, pen,pseudo, or religious name. Consequently the followingexamples are equivalent:
That silly man
<rs key="DPB1type="person">David Paul Brown</rs> has suffered the
furniture of his office to be seized
the third time for rent.
That silly man
<rs key="DPB1type="person">
 <name>David Paul Brown</name>
</rs> has suffered ...
That silly man
<name key="DPB1type="person">David Paul Brown</name> has suffered ...
That silly man
<persName key="DPB1">David Paul Brown</persName> has suffered ...

The persName element is more powerful than thers and name elements because distinctive namecomponents occurring within it can be marked as such.

Many cultures distinguish between a family or inheritedsurname and additional personal names, often known asgiven names. These should be tagged using thesurname and forename elements respectively and mayoccur in any order:
The type attribute may be used with bothforename and surname elements to provide furtherculture- or project- specific detail about the name component, forexample:
 <forename type="first">Franklin</forename>
 <forename type="middle">Delano</forename>
 <forename type="given">Margaret</forename>
 <forename type="unused">Hilda</forename>
 <surname type="maiden">Roberts</surname>
 <surname type="married">Thatcher</surname>
<persName type="religious">Muhammad Ali</persName>
 <surname type="complex">St John Stevas</surname>
Values for the type attribute are not constrained, and maybe chosen as appropriate to the encoding needs of the project. Theymay beused to distinguish different kinds of forename or surname, as well asto indicate the function a name component fills within the whole. Inthis example, we indicate that a surname is toponymic, and also pointto the specific place name from which it is derived:
 <surname type="toponymicref="#dystvold">Dystvold</surname>
<!-- ... -->
<placeName xml:id="dystvold">Dystvold</placeName>
The value complex was suggested above for the notuncommon case where the whole of a surname is composed of severalother surname elements. These nested surnames may be individuallytagged as well, together with appropriate type values:
 <surname type="complex">
  <surname type="paternal">Hattersley</surname>-
 <surname type="maternal">Smith</surname>
The full attribute may be used to indicate whether aname is an abbreviation, initials, or given in full:
 <forename full="abb">Maggie</forename>
These elements may be applied as the encoder considers appropriate, including cases where phrases or expressions are used to stand for surnames or forenames, as in the following:
  <surname>son of Herbert</surname>
 </persName> gives the king 40 m. for
having custody of the land and heir of <persName>
  <surname>son of Hugh</surname>
Similarly, patronymics may be treated as forenames, thus:
... but it remained for
to combine the two traditions in cyclic form.
When a patronymic is used as a surname, however (e.g. by an individualwho otherwise would have no surname, but lives in a culture whichrequires surnames), it may be tagged as such:
Even <persName>
acknowledged the artificiality of the procedure...
Alternatively, it may be felt more appropriate to mark a patronymic as a distinct kind of name, neither a forename nor a surname, using the addName element:
 <addName type="patronym">Skallagrmsson</addName>
In the following example, the type attribute is usedto distinguish a patronymic from other forenames:
<persName key="pn9">
 <forename sort="2">Sergei</forename>
 <forename sort="3type="patronym">Mikhailovic</forename>
 <surname sort="1">Uspensky</surname>

This example also demonstrates the use of the sortattribute common to all members of the model.persNamePart class; its effect is to statethe sequence in which forename and surname elementsshould be combined when constructing a sort key for the name.

Some names include generational or dynastic information, such as a number, or phrases such as ‘Junior’, or ‘the Elder’; these qualifications may also be used to distinguish similarly named but unrelated people. In either case, the genNameelement may be used to distinguish such labels from other parts of the name,as in the following examples:
<persName key="HEMA1">
 <surname type="dynasty">Hapsburg</surname>
It is also often convenient to distinguish phrases (historicallysimilar to the generational labels mentioned above) used to link partsof a name together, such as ‘von’, ‘of’, ‘de’ etc. Itis often a matter of arbitrary choice whether such componentsare regarded as part of the surname or not; the nameLinkelement is provided as a means of making clear what the correct usageshould be in a given case, as in the following examples:
<persName key="DUDO1">
 <roleName type="honorificfull="abb">Mme</roleName>
 <nameLink>de la</nameLink>
 <surname>de la Mare</surname>
Finally, the addName and roleName elements areused to mark all name components other than those already listed. Thedistinction between them is that a roleName encloses anassociated name component such as an aristocratic or official titlewhich exists in some sense independently of its bearer. Thedistinction is not always a clear one. As elsewhere, thetype attribute may be used with either element to supplyculture- or application- specific distinctions. Some typical valuesfor this attribute for names in the Western European tradition follow:
An inherited or life-time title of nobility such as Lord, Viscount, Baron, etc.
An academic or other honorific prefixed to a name e.g. Doctor, Professor, Mrs., etc.
Membership of some elected or appointed organization such as President, Governor, etc.
Military rank such as Colonel.
A traditional descriptive phraseor nick-name such as The Hammer, The Great, etc.
Note, however, that the role a person has in a givencontext (such as witness,defendant, etc. in a legal document) should notbe encoded using the roleName element, since this is intendedto describe the role of this part of the name, not the role of theperson bearing the name. Information about roles, occupations, etc. ofa person are encoded within the person element discussedbelow in 13.3 人物に関するデータ.
Here are some further examples of the usage of these elements:
<persName key="PGK1">
 <roleName type="nobility">Princess</roleName>
<persName key="GRMO1type="pseudo">
 <addName type="honorific">Grandma</addName>
<persName key="SLWICL1">
 <roleName type="office">President</roleName>
<persName key="MOGA1">
 <roleName type="military">Colonel</roleName>
<persName key="FRTG1">
 <addName type="epithet">the Great</addName>
A name may have any combination of the above elements:
<persName key="EGBR1">
 <roleName type="office">Governor</roleName>
 <forename sort="2">Edmund</forename>
 <forename full="initsort="3">G.</forename>
 <addName type="nick">Jerry</addName>
 <addName type="epithet">Moonbeam</addName>
 <surname sort="1">Brown</surname>
 <genName full="abb">Jr</genName>.


Although highly flexible, these mechanisms for markingpersonal name components will not cater for every personal nameand processing need. Where the internal structure of personalnames is highly complex or where name components areparticularly ambiguous, feature structures are recommended asthe most appropriate mechanism to mark and analyze them, as further discussed in chapter 18 素性構造.

13.2.2 組織名

In these Guidelines, we use the term ‘organization’ for anynamed collection of people regarded as a single unit. Typical examplesinclude businesses or institutions such as ‘HarvardCollege’ or ‘the BBC’, but also racial orethnic groupings or political factions where these are regarded asforming a single agency such as ‘the Scythians’ or‘the Militant Tendency’. Giving a loosely-definedgroup of individuals a name often serves aparticular political or social agenda and an analysis of the way suchphrases are constructed and used may therefore be of considerableimportance to the social historian, even where the objective existenceof an ‘organization’ in this sense is harder to demonstrate thanthat of (say) a named person. In the case of business or otherformally constituted institutions, the component parts of anorganizational name may help to characterize the organization in termsof its perceived geographical location, ownership, likely number ofemployees, management structure etc.

Like names of persons or places, organizational names can be markedup as referring strings or as proper names with the rs orname elements respectively. The element orgName isprovided for use where it is desired to distinguish organizationalnames more explicitly.
  • orgName (organization name) contains an organizational name.
This element is a member of the same attribute classes aspersName, as discussed above in 13.1.1 名前と指示対象の関連付け.
The orgName element may be used to mark up any form oforganizational name:
About a year back, a question of considerable
interest was agitated in the
<orgName type="voluntarykey="PAS1">Pennsyla. Abolition Society</orgName>
This encoding is equivalent to, but more specific than, either of thefollowing representations:
About a year back, a question of considerable
interest was agitated in the <rs key="PAS1type="org">
 <name>Pennsyla. Abolition Society</name>
About a year back, a question of considerable
interest was agitated in the
<name key="PAS1type="org">Pennsyla. Abolition
As shown above, like the rs and name elements, the orgNameelement has a key attribute with which an externalidentifier such as a database key can be assigned to the organizationname, and also a ref attribute which can be used to pointdirectly to an org element containing information about theorganization itself (see further 13.3.3 組織に関するデータ). Itstype attribute should be used to characterize the name(rather than the organization),for example as an acronym:
Mr Frost will be able to earn an extra fee from
<orgName type="acronym">BSkyB</orgName>
rather than the
<orgName type="acronym">BBC</orgName>
as a phrase:
The feeling in <country>Canada</country> is one of
strong aversion to the <orgName type="phrase">United
States Government</orgName>, and of
predilection for self-government under
<orgName type="phrase">English Crown</orgName>
<orgName>The Justified Ancients of Mu Mu</orgName>
or as a composite of other kinds of name:
<orgName type="partnerNames">
 <surname>Ernst</surname>&amp;amp; <surname>Young</surname>
The components of an an organization's name are not alwayspersonal names. They may also include place names:
A spokesman from
<orgName type="regional">
</orgName> said ...
or role names:
THE TICKET which you will receive herewith has been formed by
the <orgName>Democratic Whig <name type="role">party</name>
</orgName> after the most careful deliberation,
with a reference to all the great objects of NATIONAL, STATE,
COUNTY and CITY concern, and with a single eye to the <hi>Welfare and Best Interests of the Community</hi>.
As indicated above, organizational names may also be specified hierarchicallyparticularly where the named organization is itself a departmentor a branch of a larger organizational entity. ‘TheDepartment of Modern History, Glasgow University’ is anexample:
 <orgName>Department of Modern History</orgName>
  <name type="city">Glasgow</name>
  <name type="role">University</name>

13.2.3 地名

Like other proper nouns or noun phrases used as names, place namescan simply be marked up with the rs element, or with thename element. For cartographers and historical geographers,however, the component parts of a place name provide importantinformation about the relation between the name and some spot in spaceand time. They also provide important evidence in historicallinguistics.

These Guidelines distinguish three ways of referring to places. Aplace name (represented using the placeName element) mayconsist of one or more names for hierarchically-organizedgeo-political or administrative units (see section Geo-political 地名). A place named simply in terms of geographicalfeatures such as mountains or rivers is represented using thegeogName element (see section 地理的名前). Finally, an expression consisting of phrasesexpressing spatial or other kinds of relationship between other kindsof named place may itself be regarded as a way of referring to aplace, and hence as a kind of named place (see section Relative 地名).
  • placeName contains an absolute or relative place name.
  • geogName (geographical name) a name associated with some geographical feature such as Windrush Valley or Mount Sinai.
As members of the att.naming class, allof these elements share the following attributes:
  • att.naming provides attributes common to elements which refer to named persons, places, organizations etc.
    keyprovides an external means of locating a full definition for the entity being named, such as a database record key or other token.
    nymRef(reference to the canonical name) provides a means of locating the canonical form (nym) of the names associated with the object named by the element bearing it.
    ref(reference) provides an explicit means of locating a full definition for the entity being named by means of a URI.
These attributesare primarily useful as a means of linking a pplace name withinformation about a specific place. Recommendations for the encodingof information about a place, as distinct from its name, are providedin 13.3.4 Places below.
Like the persName element discussed in section 13.2.1 人名, the placeName element may be regardedsimply as an abbreviation for the elements nametype="place" or rs type="place". The followingencodings are thus equivalent:40
spending some time in our <rs key="NY1type="place">modern <name key="BA1type="place">Babylon</name>
</rs>, <name key="NY1type="place">New York</name>, I have proceeded to the
<rs key="PH1type="place">City of Brotherly Love</rs>.
After spending some
time in our <placeName key="NY1">modern <placeName key="BA1">Babylon</placeName>
</placeName>, <placeName key="NY1">New
York</placeName>, I have proceeded to the <placeName key="PH1">City of
Brotherly Love</placeName>. Geo-political 地名
A place name may contain text with no indication of its internalstructure:
More usually however, a place name of this kindwill be further analysed in terms of its constitutive geo-political oradministrative units. These may be arranged in ascending sequenceaccording to their size or administrative importance, for example:‘Rochester, New York’, or as a single such unit, for example‘Belgium’. These Guidelines provide a hierarchy of genericelement names, each of which may be more exactly specified by means ofa type attribute:
  • district contains the name of any kind of subdivision of asettlement, such as a parish, ward, or otheradministrative or geographic unit.
  • settlement contains the name of a settlement such as a city, town, orvillage identified as a single geo-political oradministrative unit.
  • region contains the name of an administrative unit such as a state,province, or county, larger than a settlement, but smaller than a country.
  • country contains the name of a geo-political unit, such as a nation,country, colony, or commonwealth, larger than or administratively superiorto a region and smaller than a bloc.
  • bloc contains the name of a geo-political unit consisting of two ormore nation states or countries.
These elements are all members of the model.placeNamePart class, members of which maybe used anywhere that text is permitted, including within each otheras in the following examples:
 <settlement type="city">Rochester</settlement>,
<region type="state">New York</region>
<placeName key="LSEA1">
 <country type="nation">Laos</country>,
<bloc type="sub-continent">Southeast Asia</bloc>
 <district type="arondissement">6ème</district>
 <settlement type="city">Paris, </settlement>
</placeName> 地理的名前
Places may also be named in terms of geographic features such asmountains, lakes, or rivers, independently of geo-political units. ThegeogName is provided to mark up such names, as an alternativeto the placeName element discussed above. For example:
<geogName key="MIRI1type="river">Mississippi River</geogName>
In addition to the usual phrase level elements, the geognameelement may contain the following specialized element:
  • geogFeat (geographical feature name) contains a common noun identifying some geographical feature contained within a geographic name, such as valley,mount etc.
Where the geogFeat element is used to characterize the kind ofgeographic feature being named, the name element will generallyalso be used to mark the associated proper noun or noun phrase:
<geogName key="MIRI1type="river">
A more complex example, showing a variety of practices, follows:
The isolated ridge
separates two great corridors which run from <name key="GLCO1type="place">Glencoe</name> into
<geogName key="GLET1type="glen">
</geogName>, the
<geogName key="LAGA1type="hill">
 <geogFeat xml:lang="gd">Lairig</geogFeat>
</geogName> and the

<geogName key="LAEI1type="hill">
 <geogFeat xml:lang="gd">Lairig</geogFeat>

The Gaelic word lairig may be glossed assloping hill face. The most efficient way of includingthis information in the above encoding would be to create a separatenym element for this component of the name and then point toit using the nymRef attribute, as further discussed in 13.3.5 規範名. Relative 地名

All the place name specifications so far discussed are absolute, in the sense that they define only oneplace. A place may however be specified in terms of its relationshipto another place, for example ‘10 miles northeast of Paris’ or‘near the top of Mount Sinai’. These relative placenames will contain a place name which acts as a referent(e.g. ‘Paris’ and ‘Mount Sinai’). They will also contain aword or phrase indicating the position of the place being named inrelation to the referent (e.g. ‘the top of’, ‘north of’). Adistance, possibly only vaguely specified, between the referent placeand the place being indicated may also be present (e.g. ‘10miles’, ‘near’).

Relative place names may be encoded using the following elements incombination with either a placeName or a geogNameelement.
  • offset that part of a relative temporal or spatial expressionwhich indicates the direction of the offset between the two placenames, dates, or times involved in the expression.
  • measure contains a word or phrase referring to some quantity ofan object or commodity, usually comprising a number, a unit, and acommodity name.
Some examples of relative place names are:
<placeName key="NRPA1">
 <offset>near the top of</offset>
 <measure>20 km</measure>
 <offset>north of</offset>
 <settlement type="city">Paris</settlement>
If desired, the distance specified may benormalized using the unit and quantityattributes of measure:
<placeName key="Duncan">
 <measure unit="kmquantity="17.7">11 miles</measure>
 <offset>Northwest of</offset>
 <settlement type="city">Providence</settlement>, <region type="state">RI</region>

The internal structure of place names is like that of personalnames — complex and subject to an enormous amount of variation acrosstime and different cultures. The recommendations in this sectionshould however be adequate for a majority of users and applications;they may be extended using the mechanisms described in chapter 23.2 Personalization and Customization to add new elements to the existing classes. When thefocus of interest is on the name components themselves, as in placename studies for example, the elements discussed in 13.3.5 規範名 may also be of use. Alternatively, the meaningstructure itself may be represented using feature structures (18 素性構造).

13.3 人物に関するデータ

This module defines a number of special purpose elements which canbe used to markup biographical, historical, and prosopographicaldata. We envisage three basic types of users and uses for theseelements. The first is the person interested in creating orconverting an existing set of biographical records, for example of thetype found in a Dictionary of National Biography. The second is theperson hoping to create or convert a database-like collection ofinformation about a group of people, possibly but not necessarily thepeople referenced in a marked-up collection of documents or atext-corpus. The third type would be those interested in the creationor conversion of biographical or CV-like structured texts for usee.g. in Human Resource applications.

To cater for this diversity, these Guidelines propose a flexibleapproach, in which encoders may choose for themselves the degree ofprescription appropriate to their needs. If one were interested, forexample, in converting existing DNB-type records, and wanted to preserve the text as is, the person element (see 13.3.2 人物向け要素) could simplycontain the text of an article, placed within p elements,possibly using elements such as name or date to markup features of that text. For a more structured entry, however, onewould extract the data and place information contained by the text,and encode it directly using the more specific elements described inthis section.

13.3.1 基本方針

Information about people, places, and organizations, of whatever type, essentially comprises aseries of statements or assertions relating to:
  • characteristics or traits which do not, byand large, change over time
  • characteristics or states which hold true only at aspecific time
  • events or incidents which may lead to a change of state or, lessfrequently, trait.

‘Characteristics’ or ‘traits’are typically independent of an individual's volition or action andcan be either physical, such as sex or hair and eye colour, orcultural, such as ethnicity, caste, or faith. The distinction is notentirely straightforward, however: while sex is fairly obviously aphysical trait, gender should rather be regarded as culturallydetermined, and the division of mankind into different‘races’, proposed by early (white European)anthropologists on the basis of physical characteristics such as skincolour, hair type and skull measurements, is by many modern culturalanthropologists now considered to be more a social or mental constructthan an objective biological fact. Furthermore, while somecharacteristics will obviously change over time, hair colour forexample, none, in principle — not even sex — is immutable.

‘States’ include, for example, marital status,place of residence and position or occupation. Such states have adefinite duration, i.e. have a beginning and an end, and are typicallya consequence of the individual's own action or that of others.

By ‘changes in state’ are meant the eventsin a person's life such as birth, marriage, or appointment to office;such events will normally be associated with a specific date or afairly narrow date-range. Changes in states can also cause or be causedby changes in characteristics. Any statement or assertion on any ofthese aspects of a person's life will be based on some source, possiblymultiple sources, possibly contradictory. Taking all this into accountit follows that each such statement or assertion needs to be able to bedocumented, put into a time frame and be relatable to other statementsor assertions of the same or any of the other types.

The elements defined by the module described in this chapter may,for the most part, all be regarded as specialisations of one or otherof the above three classes. Generic elements for state, trait, andevent are also defined:
  • event contains data relating to any kind of significant event associated with a person, place, or organization.
    whereindicates the location of an event by pointing to a place element
  • state contains a description of some ongoing status or qualityattributed to a person, place, or organization.
  • trait contains a description of some culturally-determined characteristicattributed to a person or place.

13.3.2 人物向け要素

Information about a person, as distinct from references to aperson, for example by name, is grouped together within aperson element. Information about a group of people regardedas a single entity (for example ‘the audience’ of aperformance) may be encoded using the personGrp element. Notehowever that information about a group of people with a distinctidentity (for example a named theatrical troupe) should be recordedusing the org element described in section 13.3.3 組織に関するデータ below.

These elements may appear only within a listPersonelement, which groups such descriptions together, and optionally alsodescribes relationships amongst the people listed.
  • person provides information about an identifiable individual, forexample a participant in a language interaction, or a person referredto in a historical source.
  • personGrp (personal group) describes a group of individuals treated as a single person for analytic purposes.
  • listPerson (list of persons) contains a list of descriptions, each of which providesinformation about an identifiable person or a group of people, forexample the participants in a language interaction, or the people referredto in a historical source.
  • relationGrp (relation group) provides information about relationships identified amongst people, places, and organizations, either informally as prose or as formally expressed relation links.

One or more listPerson elements may be supplied within theparticDesc (participant description) element in theprofileDesc element of a TEI Header (see 2.4 プロファイル解説). Like other forms of list, however, thelistPerson can also appear within the body of a text when themodule defined by this chapter is included in a schema.

The type attribute may be used to distinguish lists ofpeople of different kinds where this is considered convenient:
  <listPerson type="historical">
   <person xml:id="ART1">
   <person xml:id="BERT1">
<!-- ... -->
  <listPerson type="mythological">
   <person xml:id="ART2">
   <person xml:id="BERT2">
<!-- ... -->

The person element may contain many subelements, eachspecifying a different property of the person being described. Theremainder of this section describes these more specific elements. Forconvenience, these elements are grouped into three classes, corresponding withthe tripartite division outlined above: one for traits, one for statesand one for events. Each class contains both specific elements for common types of biographicalinformation, and a generic element for other, user-defined, typesof information.

All the elements in these three classes belong to the attributeclass att.datable, which provides thefollowing attributes:
  • att.datable.w3c provides attributes for normalization of elements that contain datable events using the W3C datatypes.
    whensupplies the value of a date or time in a standard form.
    notBeforespecifies the earliest possible date for the event in standard form, e.g. yyyy-mm-dd.
    notAfterspecifies the latest possible date for the event in standard form, e.g. yyyy-mm-dd.
    fromindicates the starting point of the period in standard form.
    toindicates the ending point of the period in standard form.
as discussed in 13.1 属性クラス Defined by thisModule above. 性格・特性
The model.persTraitLike class contains elementsdescribing physical or socially-constructed characteristics or traitsof a person. Members of the class comprise the following specificelements:
  • faith specifies the faith, religion, or belief set of a person.
  • langKnowledge (language knowledge) summarizes the state of a person's linguistic knowledge, eitheras prose or by a list of langKnown elements.
  • langKnown (language known) summarizes the state of a person's linguistic competence, i.e., knowledge of a single language.
  • nationality contains an informal description of a person's presentor past nationality or citizenship.
  • sex specifies the sex of a person.
  • age specifies the age of a person.
  • socecStatus (socio-economic status) contains an informal description of a person's perceived social oreconomic status.
All, apart from langKnowledge, have a content model of macro.phraseSeq, by which is meant ordinary prose containing phrase-level elements.
<socecStatus key="AB1">Status AB1 in the RG Classification scheme</socecStatus>

The langKnowledge element contains either paragraphs or anumber of langKnown elements; it may take a tagsattribute, which provides one or more standard codes or‘tag’s for the languages. The langKnownelement must have a tag attribute, which indicates thelanguage with the same kind of ‘language tag’.These ‘language tags’ are discussed in detail invi.i Language identification.

Furthermore, the langKnown element also has alevel attribute to indicate the level of the person'scompetence in the language. It is thus possible either to say:
<langKnowledge tags="ff fr wo en">
 <p>Speaks fluent Fulani, Wolof, and French. Some knowledge of English.</p>
 <langKnown level="fluenttag="ff">Fulani</langKnown>
 <langKnown level="fluenttag="wo">Wolof</langKnown>
 <langKnown level="fluenttag="fr">French</langKnown>
 <langKnown level="basictag="en">English</langKnown>
The sex element carries a value attribute to give the ISO 5218:1977 values, i.e. 1 for male, 2 for female, 9 for non-applicable, and 0 for unknown.
<sex value="2">female</sex>
The generic trait element is also a member of this class,
  • trait contains a description of some culturally-determined characteristicattributed to a person or place.
This element can be used to extend the range of information suppliedabout an individual's personal traits. It may contain an optionallabel element, used to provide a human-readablespecification for the category of trait or feature concerned and adescription of the feature itself supplied within a descelement. These may be followed by or one or morep elements supplying more detailed information about thetrait. In either case, these may be followed by one or more notes or bibliographical references. The type, ref, and key attributes are available on the persTraitelement to indicate a fuller definition of the combination of featureand value.
<trait type="ethnicitykey="alb">
 <desc>Ethnic Albanian.</desc>
The generic element can be used in place of one of the morespecific elements:
<trait type="nationalitynotBefore="2002-01-15">
 <desc>American citizen from 15 January 2002.</desc>
is the same as:
<nationality notBefore="2002-01-15">Became an American citizen on 15 January 2002.</nationality>
or even:
<nationality notBefore="2002-01-15key="US"/>
More usually however, the element is provided as a simple means ofextending the set of descriptive features available in a standardizedway. For example, there are no predefined elements for such featuresas eye or hair colour. If these are to be recorded, they may simply beadded as new types of trait:
<trait type="physical">
 <label>eye colour</label>
<trait type="physical">
 <label>hair colour</label>
</trait> 社会的状態
The model.persStateLike class contains elements describing changeable characteristics of a person which have a definite duration, for example occupation, residence, or name. Members of the class comprise the following specific elements:
  • persName (personal name) contains a proper noun or proper-noun phrase referring to a person, possibly including any or all of the person's forenames, surnames, honorifics, added names, etc.
  • occupation contains an informal description of a person's trade,profession or occupation.
  • residence (residence) describes a person's present or past places of residence.
  • affiliation contains an informal description of a person's presentor past affiliation with someorganization, for example an employer or sponsor.
  • education contains a description of theeducational experience of a person.
  • floruit contains information about a person's period of activity.
The persName element is repeatable and can, like all TEIelements, take the attribute xml:lang to indicate thelanguage of the content of the element, as well as atype attribute to indicate the type of name, whether anickname, maiden name, alternative form, etc. This is useful in caseswhere, for example, a person is known by a Latin name and also by anynumber of vernacular names, many or all of which may have claims to‘authenticity’. In order to ensure uniformity, themethod generally employed in the library world has been to accept theform found in some authority file, for example that of the AmericanLibrary of Congress, as the ‘base’ or‘neutral’ form. Feelings can run high on thismatter, however, and people are often reluctant to accept as‘neutral’ an overtly foreign form of the name oftheir local saint or hero. Within the person element anynumber of variant forms of a name can be given, with noprioritisation, and hence less likelihood of offence. The Icelandicscholar and manuscript collector Árni Magnússon, to give hisname in standard modern Icelandic spelling, is known in Danish as ArneMagnusson, the form which he himself, as a life-long resident ofDenmark, generally used; there is also a Latinised form, ArnasMagnæus, which he used in his scholarly writings. All three formscan be given, and in any order:
<person xml:id="ArnMag">
 <persName xml:lang="is">Árni Magnússon</persName>
 <persName xml:lang="da">Arne Magnusson</persName>
 <persName xml:lang="la">Arnas Magnæus</persName>
<person xml:id="simon_son_of_richard2">
 <persName>Simon, son of Richard</persName>
 <floruit notBefore="1219notAfter="1223">1219-1223</floruit>
In addition to these specific elements the class contains a genericelement called state.
  • state contains a description of some ongoing status or qualityattributed to a person, place, or organization.
This element can be used toextend the range of descriptive information available in the same wayas the trait element, using the same content model. For example, a description of the first living held by the Icelandicclergyman and poet Jón Oddsson Hjaltalín might be tagged asfollows:
<state type="officefrom="1777-04-07to="1780-07-12">
 <p>Jón's first living — which he apparently accepted rather reluctantly — was at
 <name type="place">Háls í Hamarsfirði</name>, <name type="place">Múlasýsla</name>, to which
   he was presented on 7 April 1777. He was ordained the following
   month and spent three years at Háls, but was never happy there,
   due largely to the general penury in which he was forced to live
   a recurrent theme throughout the early part of his life. In June
   of 1780 the bishop recommended that Jón
   should <q xml:lang="da">promoveres til andet bedre kald, end det
     hand hidindtil har havt</q>, and on 12 July it was agreed that
   he should exchange livings with
 <name type="personkey="ThorJon">sr. Þórður Jónsson</name> at
 <name type="place">Kálfafell á Síðu</name>,
 <name type="place">Skaftafellssýsla</name>.</p>
 <bibl>ÞÍ, Stms I.15, p. 733.</bibl>
 <bibl>ÞÍ, Stms I.17, p. 102.</bibl>
</state> 出来事
The model.persEventLike class contains elementsdescribing specific events in a person'shistory, for example birth, marriage, or appointment. These are notcharacteristics of an individual, but often cause an individual togain such characteristics, or to enter a new state. Members of thisclass comprise the following elements:
  • birth contains information about a person's birth, such as its dateand place.
  • death contains information about a person's death, such as its dateand place.
Only two specific elements (birth and death) areproposed. The generic element event has a similar contentmodel to that of state and trait; the chiefdifference being that it can include a placeName element toidentify the name of the place where the event occurred. It is used to describe any event in the life of an individual.
In the following example, we give a brief summary of the wedding ofJane Burden to the English writer, designer, and socialist WilliamMorris, encoded as an event element embedded within theperson element used to record data about Morris, though wecould equally well have embedded the event within the personelement for Burden, or have given it as a freestanding eventindependent of either person element:
<person xml:id="WM">
<!-- ... -->
 <event type="marriagewhen="1859-04-26">
   <name type="personref="#WM">William Morris</name> and <name type="personref="#JBM">Jane Burden</name> were
     married at <name type="place">St Michael's Church, Ship Street, Oxford</name> on
  <date when="1859-04-26">26 April 1859</date>. The wedding was
     conducted by Morris's friend <name type="personref="#RWD">R. W.
       Dixon</name> with <name type="personref="#CBF">Charles
       Faulkner</name> as
     the best man. The bride was given away by her father,
  <name type="personref="#RB">Robert Burden</name>.
     According to the account that <name type="personref="#EBJ">Burne-Jones</name>
     gave <name type="personref="#JWM">Mackail</name>
   <quote>M. said to Dixon beforehand <said>Mind
         you don't call her Mary</said> but he did</quote>. The entry in the
     Register reads: <quote>William Morris, 25, Bachelor Gentleman, 13
       George Street, son of William Morris decd. Gentleman. Jane Burden,
       minor, spinster, 65 Holywell Street, d. of Robert Burden,
       Groom.</quote> The witnesses were Jane's parents and Faulkner. None of
     Morris's family attended the ceremony. Morris presented Jane with a
     plain gold ring bearing the London hallmark for 1858. She gave her
     husband a double-handled antique silver cup.</desc>
  <bibl>J. W. Mackail, <title>The Life of William Morris</title>, 1899.</bibl>
<person xml:id="JBM">
 <persName>Jane Burden</persName>
<person xml:id="RWD">
 <persName>R.W. Dixon</persName>
<person xml:id="CBF">
 <persName>Charles Faulkner</persName>
<person xml:id="EBJ">
<person xml:id="JWM">
 <persName>J.W. Mackail</persName>
In this example the keys on the various name elementspoint to the person elements for the other people named. Asfurther discussed below ( 関連), arelation element may then be used to link them in a moremeaningful way:
<relation name="spousemutual="#WM #JBM"/>
<relation name="friendmutual="#WM #RWD"/>
<relation name="parentactive="#RBpassive="#JBM"/>
As mentioned above, all these elements, both the specific and thegeneric, are members of the att.datable attributeclass, which means they can be limited in terms of time. Thefollowing encoding, for example, demonstrates that the person namedDavid Jones changed his name in 1966 to David Bowie:
<person xml:id="DB">
 <persName notAfter="1966">David Jones</persName>
 <persName notBefore="1966">David Bowie</persName>
All the generic elements are also members of the att.editLikeclass, which, as its name implies, was originally intended to provideattributes ‘describing the nature of an encoded scholarly interventionor interpretation of any kind’ and which makes available the attributescert, to indicate the degree of certainty, resp, the agency responsible, and evidence,the nature of the evidence used. In this way it is possible, in thecase of multiple and conflicting sources, to provide more than one viewof what happened, as in the following example:
<event type="birthresp="#XYZcert="high">
 <p>Born in <name type="place">Brixton</name> on 8 January 1947.</p>
<event type="birthresp="#ABCcert="low">
 <p>Born in <name type="place">Berkhamsted</name> on 9 January 1947.</p>
</event> 関連
When the module defined by this chapter is included in a schema,the following two elements may be used to document relationshipsamongst the persons, places, or organizations identified:
  • relationGrp (relation group) provides information about relationships identified amongst people, places, and organizations, either informally as prose or as formally expressed relation links.
  • relation (relationship) describes any kind of relationship or linkage amongst a specifiedgroup of participants.
    namesupplies a name for the kind of relationship of which this is an instance.
    activeidentifies the ‘active’ participants in a non-mutualrelationship, or all the participants in a mutual one.
    mutualsupplies a list of participants amongst all of whom the relationship holds equally.
    passiveidentifies the ‘passive’ participants in a non-mutualrelationship.
These elements are both members of the att.typed class, fromwhich they inherit the type and subtypeattributes in the usual way. The value specified for either attribute ona relationGrp element is implicitly applicable to all of itschild relation elements, unless overriden.

A relationship, as defined here, may be any kind ofdescribable link between specified participants. A participant (inthis sense) might be a person, a place, or an organization. In thecase of persons, therefore, a relationship might be a socialrelationship (such as employer/employee), a personal relationship(such as sibling, spouse, etc.) or something less precise such as‘possessing shared knowledge’. A relationship may bemutual, in that all the participants engage in it on anequal footing (for example the ‘sibling’ relationship); or it maynot be if participants are not identical with respect to their role inthe relationship (for example, the ‘employer’ relationship). Fornon-mutual relationships, only two kinds of role are currentlysupported; they are named active andpassive. These names are chosen to reflect the fact thatnon-mutual relations are directed, in the sense that theyare most readily described by a transitive verb, or a verb phrase ofthe form is X of or is X to. Thesubject of the verb is classed as active; the directobject of the verb, or the object of the concluding preposition, aspassive. Thus parents are ‘active’ and children‘passive’ in the relationship ‘parent’ (interpreted asis parent of); the employer is ‘active’, theemployee ‘passive’, in the relationship employs.These relationships can be inverted: parents are ‘passive’ andchildren ‘active’ in the relationship is child of;similarly ‘works for’ inverts the active and passive roles of‘employs’.

For example:
 <relation name="parentactive="#P1 #P2passive="#P3 #P4"/>
 <relation name="spousemutual="#P1 #P2"/>
   passive="#P3 #P4"/>

This example defines the relationships amongst a number of people notfurther described here; we assume however that each person has beenallocated an identifier such as P1, P2,etc. which can be linked to using the reference #P1. Thenthe above set of relation elements describe the followingthree relationships amongst the seven people referenced:
  • P1 and P2 are parents of P3 and P4.
  • P1 and P2 are linked in a mutual relationship called ‘spouse’— i.e. P2 is the spouse of P1, and P1 is the spouse of P2.
  • P1 has the social relationship ‘employer’ with respect to P3,and P4.

Relationships within places and organizations are furtherdiscussed in the relevant section below. Relationships between forexample organizations and places, or places and persons, may behandled in exactly the same way.

13.3.3 組織に関するデータ

The org and listOrg elements are used to storedata about an organization such as its preferred name, its locations,or key persons within it.
  • org (organization) provides information about an identifiable organization such as a business, a tribe, or any other grouping of people.
  • listOrg (list of organizations) contains a list of descriptions, each of which providesinformation about an identifiable organization.
These elements are intended to be used in a way analogous to theplace and person elements discussed elsewhere inthis chapter, that is to provide as a unique wrapper element forinformation about an entity, distinct from references to that entitywhich are typically encoded using a naming element such as nametype="org" or orgName. The content of a naming elementwill represent the way an organization is named in a given context;the content of an org represents the information known to theencoder about that organization, gathered together in a single place,and independent of its textual realization.

An organization is not the same thing as a list or group of people becauseit has an identity of its own. That identity may be expressed solelyin the existence of a name (for example ‘The Scythians’), but islikely to consist in the combination of that name with a number ofevents, traits, or states which are considered to apply to theorganization itself, rather than any of its members. For example, asports team might be defined in terms of its membership (alistPerson), its fixtures (a listPlace), itsgeographical affiliation (a placeName), or any combination ofthese. It will also have properties which may be used to categorize itin some way such as the kind of sport played, whether the team isamateur or professional, and so on: these are probably best dealt withby means of the type attribute. However, it is the name ofthe sports team alone which identifies it.

The content model for org permits any mixture ofgeneric state, trait, or event elements:the presence of the orgName elementdescribed in 13.2.2 組織名 is however strongly recommended.

In other respects, the org element is used in much thesame way as place or person. An organization mayhave different names at different times:
 <orgName notAfter="1960">The Silver Beetles</orgName>
 <orgName from="1960-08">The Beatles</orgName>
The names of the people making up an organization can also changeover time, (if they are known at all). For example:
 <orgName notAfter="1960">The Silver Beetles</orgName>
 <orgName notBefore="1960">The Beatles</orgName>
 <state type="membershipfrom="1960-08to="1962-05">
   <persName>John Lennon</persName>
   <persName>Paul McCartney</persName>
   <persName>George Harrison</persName>
   <persName>Stuart Sutcliffe</persName>
   <persName>Pete Best</persName>
 <state type="membershipnotBefore="1963">
   <persName>John Lennon</persName>
   <persName>Paul McCartney</persName>
   <persName>George Harrison</persName>
   <persName>Ringo Starr</persName>
An org may contain subordinate orgs:
 <orgName>Oxford University Computing Services</orgName>
  <orgName>Information and Support Group</orgName>
  <orgName>Infrastructure Group</orgName>
   <orgName>Networking Team</orgName>
   <orgName>System Development Team</orgName>
  <orgName>Learning Technologies Group</orgName>

13.3.4 Places

In 13.2.3 地名 we discuss various ways of naming placessuch as towns, countries etc. In much the same way as these Guidelinesdistinguish between the encoding of names for people and the encodingof other data about people, so they also distinguish between theencoding of names for places and the encoding of other data aboutplaces. In this section we present elements which may be used torecord in a structured way data about places of any kind which mightbe named or referenced within a text. Such data may be useful as a wayof normalising or standardizing references to particular places, asthe raw material for a gazetteer or similar reference documentassociated with a particular text or set of texts, or in conjunctionwith any form of geographical information system.

The following elements are provided for this purpose:
  • listPlace (list of places) contains a list of places, optionally followed by a list of relationships (other than containment) defined amongst them.
  • place contains data about a geographic location

The model.placeStateLike class contains elements describing characteristics of a place which have a definite duration, such as its name. Any member of the model.placeNamePart may be used for this purpose, since a place element will usually contain at least one, and possibly several, placeName-like elements indicating the names associated with it, by different people, in different languages, or at different times.

For example, the modern city of Lyon in France was in Roman timesknown as Lugdunum. Although the modern and the Roman city are notphysically co-extensive, they have significant areas which overlap,and we may therefore wish to regard them as the same place, whilesupplying both names with an indication of the time period duringwhich each was current.

A place is defined, however, by its physical location, which doesnot typically change over time; we regard the location therefore as atrait of the place, and represent it by means of elements from themodel.placeTraitLike class. Locations maybe specified in a number of ways: as a set of coordinates defining apoint or an area on the surface of the earth, or by providing adescription of how the place may be found, usually in terms of otherplaceNames. For example, we can identify the location of the Canadiancity of London, either by specifying its latitute and longitude, or byspecifying that we mean the city called London located in the provincecalled Ontario within the country called Canada.

In addition we may wish to supply a brief characterization of theplace identified, for example to state that it is a city, anadministrative area such as a country, or a landmark of some kind suchas a monument or a battlefield. If our typology of places is simple,the open ended type attribute is the easiest way torepresent it: so we might say place type="city", placetype="battlefield" etc.

Within the place element, the following elements may beused to provide more information about specific aspects of the placein a structured form:
  • placeName contains an absolute or relative place name.
  • location defines the location of a place as a set of geographical coordinates, in terms of a other named geo-political entities, or as an address. 複数の表示方法
A location may be specified in one or more of the following ways:
  1. by supplying a string representing its coordinates in somestandardized way within a geo element, as shown below
  2. by supplying one or more place name component elements(e.g. country, settlement etc.) to place it withina geo-political context
  3. by supplying a postal address, e.g. using the addresselement
  4. by supplying a brief textual description, e.g. using thedesc element
  5. by using a non-TEI XML vocabulary such as the Geography Markup Language
We give examples of all of these methods in the remainder of this section.
The simplest method of specifying a location is by means of itsgeographic coordinates, supplied within the geoelement. This may be used to supply any kind of positionalinformation, using one of the many different geodetic systemsavailable. Such systems vary in their format, in their scope orcoverage, and more fundamentally in the reference frame (the‘datum’) used for the coordinate systemitself. The default recommended by these Guidelines is to supply astring containing two real numbers which indicate latitude andlongitude according to the 1984 World Geodetic System (WGS84);this is the system currently used by most GPS applications which TEIusers are likely to encounter. 41We might therefore record the information about the placeknown as ‘Lyon’ as follows:
<place xml:id="LYON1type="city">
 <placeName notBefore="1400">Lyon</placeName>
 <placeName notAfter="0056">Lugdunum</placeName>
  <geo>41.687142 -74.870109</geo>
Identifying Lyon by its geo-political status as a settlement within a country forming part of a larger political entity, we might represent the same ‘place’ as follows:
<place xml:id="LYON2">
 <placeName notBefore="1400">Lyon</placeName>
 <placeName notAfter="0056">Lugdunum</placeName>
The elements bloc etc. are specialised forms of placeName, as discussed in Geo-political 地名.
We may use the same procedure to represent the location of smallerplaces, such as a street or even an individual building:
<place type="building">
 <placeName>Brasserie Georges</placeName>
  <country key="FR"/>
  <settlement type="city">Lyon</settlement>
  <district type="arrondissement">Perrache</district>
  <placeName type="street">Rue de la Charité</placeName>
Note the use of the type attribute to categorize moreprecisely both the kind of place concerned (a building) and the kindof name used to locate it, for example by characterizing the genericdistrict as an ‘arrondissement’.
We may even wish to treat imaginary places in the same way:
  <placeName>The Pillars of <persName>Hercules</persName>
A location sometimes resemble a set of instructions for finding a place, rather than a name:
<place xml:id="MYF">
 <placeName notAfter="1969">Yasgur's Farm</placeName>
 <placeName notBefore="1969">Woodstock Festival Site</placeName>
  <measure>one mile</measure>
  <offset>north west of</offset>
  <region>New York</region>
The element address may also be used to identify a location in terms of its postal or other address:
<place type="cemetery">
 <placeName>Protestant Cemetery</placeName>
 <placeName type="officialxml:lang="it">Cimitero Acattolico</placeName>
 <location type="geopolitical">
 <location type="address">
   <addrLine>Via Caio Cestio, 6</addrLine>
   <addrLine>00153 Roma</addrLine>
When, as here, the same place is given multiple locations, the type attribute should be used to characterize the kind of location, as a means of indicating that these are alternative ways of identifying the same place, rather than that place is spread across several locations.

The location element may thus identify a place to agreater or lesser degree of precision, using a variety of means: aname, a set of names, or a set of coordinates. The geoelement introduced earlier is by default understood to supply a valueexpressed in a specific (and widely used) notation; this may bemodified in two ways.

Firstly, the content of the geo element could be interpreted insome other way, that is, according to some different geodeticsystem. By default, a standard known as the World Geodetic System(WGS) is employed; the following element is provided to indicate(within the header of a document) a different notation, or one basedon a different datum, has been employed:
  • geoDecl (geographic coordinates declaration) documents the notation and the datum used for geographic coordinates expressed as content of the geo element elsewhere within the document.
    datumsupplies a commonly used code name for the datum employed.
Secondly, the element geo may be redefined to containmarkup from a different XML vocabulary which is specifically designedto represent this kind of information. This technique is usedthroughout the Guidelines where specialized markup is required, forexample to embed mathematical expressions or vector graphics, and isfurther described and exemplified in 23.2.4 例 of Modification . Forgeographic information, suitable non-TEI vocabularies include:
  • the Geographical Markup Language (GML) being defined by theOGC42
  • the Keyhole Markup Language (KML) now used by Google Maps43
In the following example, we have defined the place‘Lyon’ using GML and indicated the two names associated with it at different times:
<place type="city">
<placeName notBefore="1400">Lyon</placeName>
<placeName notAfter="0056">Lugdunum</placeName>
<gml:LinearRing> 45.256 -110.45 46.46 -109.48 43.84 -109.86 45.8 -109.2
45.256 -110.45 </gml:LinearRing>

A bibl element may be used within location to indicate the source of the location information. 複数の場所
A place may contain other places. This containment relation can be directly modelled in XML: thus we can say that the towns of Vilnius and Kaunas are both in a place called Lithuania (or Lietuva) as follows:
 <country xml:lang="lt">Lietuva</country>

This does not, of course, imply that Vilnius and Kaunas are theonly places constituting Lithuania; only that they are within it. Aseparate place element may indicate that it is a part ofLithuania by supplying a relation element, as discussed below( 場所間の関係).

As a further example, the islands of Mauritius, Réunion, andRodrigues are collectively known as the Mascarene Islands. Groupedtogether with Mauritius there are also several smaller offshoreislands, with rather picturesque French names. These offshore islandsdo not however constitute an identifiable place as a whole. One way ofrepresenting this is as follows:
<place type="islandGroup">
 <placeName>Mascarene Islands</placeName>
 <placeName>Mascarenhas Archipelago</placeName>
 <place type="island">
  <listPlace type="offshoreIslands">
    <placeName>La roche qui pleure</placeName>
    <placeName>Ile aux cerfs</placeName>
 <place type="island">
 <place type="island">
Here is a more complex example, showing the variety of names associated at different times and in different languages with a set of hierarchically grouped places — the settlement of Camarthen Castle, within the town of Carmarthen, within the administrative county of Carmarthenshire, Wales.
<place xml:id="walestype="country">
 <placeName xml:lang="cy">Cymru</placeName>
 <placeName xml:lang="en">Wales</placeName>
 <placeName xml:lang="la">Wallie</placeName>
 <placeName xml:lang="la">Wallia</placeName>
 <placeName xml:lang="fro">Le Waleis</placeName>
 <place xml:id="carmarthenshiretype="region">
  <region type="countyxml:lang="ennotBefore="1284">Carmarthenshire</region>
  <place xml:id="carmarthentype="settlement">
   <placeName xml:lang="en">Carmarthen</placeName>
   <placeName xml:lang="lanotBefore="1090notAfter="1300">Kaermerdin</placeName>
   <placeName xml:lang="cy">Caerfyrddin</placeName>
   <place xml:id="carmarthen_castletype="castle">
    <settlement>castle of Carmarthen</settlement>

As noted previously, country, region,settlement are all specializations of the genericplacename element; they are not specializations of theplace element. If it is desired to distinguish amongst kindsof place this can only be done by means of thetype attribute as in the above example.

This use of multiple place elements should bedistinguished from the (possibly simpler) case where a number ofplaces with some property in common are being grouped together forconvenience, for example, in a gazetteer. The listPlaceelement is provided as a means of grouping places together where thereis no implication that the grouped elements constitute a distinctplace. For example:
<place type="county">
 <listPlace type="villages">
   <placeName>Abbey Dore</placeName>
    <geo>51.969604 -2.893146</geo>
   <placeName>Acton Beauchamp</placeName>
<!-- etc -->
 <listPlace type="towns">
<!-- etc -->
</place> States, Traits, and Events
There are many different kinds of information which it might be considered useful to record for a place in addition to its name and location, and the categories selected are likely to be very project-specific. As with persons therefore these Guidelines make no claim to comprehensiveness in this context. Instead, the generic state, trait, and event elements defined by this module should be used. Each of these may be customized for particular needs by means of their type attribute. These are complemented by a small number of predefined elements of general utility:
  • population contains information about the population of a place.
  • climate contains information about the physical climate of a place.
  • terrain contains information about the physical terrain of a place.

These are all specializations of the genericthe generic trait element. The generic event elementmay be used for almost any kind of event in the life of a place; nospecialized version of this element is proposed, nor do we attempt toenumerate the possible values which might be appropriate for thetype attribute on any of these generic elements.

Here is an example, showing how the specific and generic elements may be combined:
<place xml:id="IS">
 <placeName xml:lang="en">Iceland</placeName>
 <placeName xml:lang="is">Ísland</placeName>
  <geo>65.00 -18.00</geo>
  <desc>Area: 103,000 sq km</desc>
 <state type="governancenotBefore="1944">
  <p>Constitutional republic</p>
 <state type="governancenotAfter="1944">
  <p>Part of the kingdom of <placeName key="#DK">Denmark</placeName>
 <event type="governancewhen="1944-06-17">
  <desc>Iceland became independent on 17 June 1944.</desc>
 <state type="governancefrom="1944-06-17">
  <p>An independent republic since June 1944</p>
Like place elements, state and traitelements, and others of the same class, can be nested hierarchicallywithin each other. When this is done, values for the typeattribute are to be understood as cumulatively inherited, as elsewherein the TEI scheme (for example on category orlinkGrp). In the following example, the outermostpopulation element concerns the squirrel population betweenthe dates given. This is then broken down into red and gray squirrelpopulations, and within that into male and female:

 <population type="redwhen="1901-01-10">
  <population type="female">
  <population type="male">
 <population type="graywhen="1902-01-10cert="high">
  <population type="female">
  <population type="malecert="lowresp="#biber">
The dating and responsibility attributes here behave slightly differently from the type attribute: responsibility is not an additive property, and therefore an element either states it explicitly, or inherits it from its nearest ancestor. Dating is slightly different again, in that a child element may specify a date more precisely than its parent, as in the example above
Events may also be subdivided into other events. For example, a two part meeting might be represented as follows:
<event type="meetingwhen="2007-05-29">
 <desc>All day meeting to resolve content models</desc>
 <event type="preamblenotAfter="13:00:00">
  <desc>first part</desc>
 <event type="conclusionsnotBefore="13:00:00">
  <desc>second part</desc>
</event> 場所間の関係
The relation element may also be used to expressrelationships of various kinds between places, or between places andpersons, in much the same way as it is used to express relationshipsbetween persons alone. Returning to the Mascarene Islands examplecited above, we might define the island group and its constituentsseparately, but indicate the relationship by means of arelation element:
 <place xml:id="MASC">
  <placeName>Mascarene islands</placeName>
  <placeName>Mascarenhas Archipelago</placeName>
 <place xml:id="MRU">
<!-- ... -->
 <place xml:id="ROD">
 <place xml:id="REN">
 <relation name="containsactive="#MASCpassive="#ROD #MRU #REN"/>
This ‘stand off’ style of representation has theadvantage that we can now also represent the fact that a place may bea ‘part of’ more than one other place; for example, Réunion ispart of France, as well as part of the Mascarenes. If we add adeclaration for France to the list above:
<place type="countryxml:id="FRA">
we can now model this dual allegiance by means of a relation element:
<relation name="partOfactive="#RENpassive="#FRA #MASC"/>

13.3.5 規範名

So far we have discussed ways in which a name or referring stringencountered in running text may be resolved by considering the objectthat the name refers to: in the case of a personal name, the namerefers to a person; in the case of a place name, to a place, forexample. The resolution of this reference is effected by means of thekey attribute available to all elements which are membersof the att.naming class, such as persName orplaceName and their more specialized variants such asforename or country. However, names canalso be regarded as objects in their own right, irrespective of theobjects to which they are attached, notably in onomastic studies. Fromthis point of view, the names John in English,Jean in French, and Ivan in Russian might all be regarded as existingindependently of any person to which they are attached, and alsoindependently of any variant forms that might be attested in differentsources (such as Jon or Johnny in English, or Jehan or Jojo inFrench). We use the term nym to refer to the canonical ornormalized form of a name regarded in such a way, and provide thefollowing elements to encode it:
  • listNym (list of canonical names) contains a list of nyms, that is, standardized names for any thing.
  • nym (canonical name) contains the definition for a canonical name or namepart of any kind.
Any element which is a member of the att.namingclass may use the attribute nymRef to indicate the nym withwhich it corresponds. Thus, given the following nym for thename Antony:
 <nym xml:id="N123">
<!-- other nym definitions here -->
an occurrence of this name in running text might be encoded as follows:
<forename nymRef="#N123">Tony</forename> Blair
The person identified by this particular Tony may be indicatedindependently using the key attribute, either on theforename or on the whole name component:
<forename nymRef="#N123ref="#BLT">Tony</forename>

<person xml:id="BLT">
 <persName>Tony Blair</persName>
The nym element may be thought of as providing aspecialised kind of dictionaryentry. Like a dictionary entry, it may contain any element from the model.entryPart class, such as form,etym etc. For example, we may show that the canonical formfor a given nym has two orthographic variants in this way:
<nym xml:id="J451">
  <orth xml:lang="en-US">Ian</orth>
  <orth xml:lang="en-x-Scots">Iain</orth>
Because a schema intending to make use of the nym orlistNym element must include the TEI dictionaries module as well as the namesdates module, many otherelements are available in addition to form. For example, to provide a more complex etymological decomposition of a name, wemight use the existing etym element, as follows:
<nym xml:id="XYZ">
 <etym>Means <gloss>favoured by God</gloss> from the
 <lang>Slavic</lang> elements <mentioned xml:lang="ru">bog</mentioned>
  <gloss>God</gloss> and <mentioned xml:lang="ru">mil</mentioned>
Where it is necessary to mark the substructure of nyms, this might bedone by marking seg elements within theform:
<nym xml:id="ABC">
   <seg type="morph">
   <seg type="morph">
The seg element used here is provided by the TEI linking module, which would therefore also needto be included in a schema built to validate such markup. Otherpossibilities for more detailed linguistic analysis are provided byelements included in that and the analysis (see 17 簡易分析機能) or ISOfs modules (see 18 素性構造).
Alternatively, each of the constituents ofBogomil might be regarded as a nym in its ownright:
<nym xml:id="B1type="part">
<nym xml:id="M1type="part">
Within running text, a name can specify all the nyms associated withit:
...<name nymRef="#B1 #M1">Bogomul</name>...
Similarly, within a nym, the attribute parts is used toindicate its constituent parts, where these have been identified asdistinct nyms:
<nym xml:id="BM1parts="#B1 #M1">
The nym element may also combine a number of othernym elements together, where it is intended to show that theyare all regarded as variations on the same root. Thus the differentforms of the name John, all being derived from the same Latin root, may berepresented as a hierarchic structure like this:
<nym xml:id="J45">
 <nym xml:id="J450">
  <form xml:lang="en">John</form>
  <nym xml:id="J4501">
  <nym xml:id="J4502">
 <nym xml:id="J455">
  <form xml:lang="ru">Ivan</form>
 <nym xml:id="J453">
  <form xml:lang="fr">Jean</form>
The nym element may be used for components of geographicalor organizational names as well. For example:
<geogName key="LAEI1type="hill">
 <geogFeat xml:lang="gdnymRef="#LAIRG">Lairig</geogFeat>
<nym xml:id="LAIRG">
 <form xml:lang="gd">lairig</form>
 <def>sloping hill face</def>
As noted above, use of these elements implies that both the dictionaries and the namesdates modules are included in aschema.

13.3.6 日付や時間

The following elements for the encoding of dates and times wereintroduced in section 3.5.4 日付や時間:
  • date contains a date in any format.
  • time contains a phrase defining a time of day in any format.
The current module namesdates provides a mechanism for more detailed encoding of relative dates and times. A relative temporal expression describes a date or time with reference to some other (absolute) temporalexpression, and thus may contain an offset element in addition toone or more date or time elements:
  • offset that part of a relative temporal or spatial expressionwhich indicates the direction of the offset between the two placenames, dates, or times involved in the expression.
As members of the att.datable and att.duration classes, which in turn are members ofatt.datable.w3c and att.duration.w3c respectively, the dateand time elements share the following attributes:
  • att.datable.w3c provides attributes for normalization of elements that contain datable events using the W3C datatypes.
    whensupplies the value of a date or time in a standard form.
  • att.duration.w3c attributes for recording normalized temporal durations.
    dur(duration) indicates the length of this element in time. Relative 日付や時間

As noted above, relative dates and times such as ‘in the TwoHundredth and First Year of the Republic’, ‘twenty minutes beforenoon’, and, more ambiguously, ‘after the lamented death of theDoctor’ or ‘an hour after the game’ have two distinctcomponents. As well as the absolute temporal expression or event towhich reference is made (e.g. ‘noon’, ‘the game’, ‘thedeath of the Doctor’, ‘[the foundation of] the Republic’), theyalso contain a description of the ‘distance’between the time or date which is indicated and the referentexpression (e.g. ‘the Two Hundredth and First Year’, ‘twentyminutes’, ‘an hour’); and (optionally) an‘offset’ describing the direction of the distancebetween the time or date indicated and the referent expression(e.g. ‘of’ implying after, ‘before’, ‘after’).

The ‘distance’ component of a relative temporalexpression may be encoded as a temporal element in its own right usingeither date or time, or with the more genericmeasure element. A special element, offset, isprovided by this module for encoding the ‘offset’component of a relative temporal expression. The absolute temporalexpression contained within the relative expression may be encodedwith a date or time element; in turn, those elementsmay of course be relative, and thus contain date ortime elements within themselves. This allows for deeplynested structures such as ‘the third Sunday after the first Mondaybefore Lammastide in the fifth year of the King's second marriage... ’ but so does natural language.

In the following examples, the when and durattributes have been used to simplify processing of variant forms ofexpression:
<date when="1786-12-11">
 <date dur="P14D">A fortnight</date>
 <date when="1786-12-25type="holiday">Christmas 1786</date>
I reached the station <time when="14:15:00">
 <time dur="PT30M0S">precisely half an hour</time>
 <time when="13:45:00type="occasion">the departure of the afternoon train to Boston</time>
In the following example, a nested date element isused to show that ‘my birthday’ and the cited date are parts ofthe same temporal expression, and hence to disambiguate the phrase‘A week before my birthday on 9th December’:
<date when="--12-02">
 <date>A week</date>
 <date when="--12-09">
  <date type="occasion">my birthday</date>
   on <date>9th December</date>
The alternative reading of this phrase could be encoded as follows:
<date when="--12-09">
 <date>A week</date>
 <date type="occasionwhen="--12-16">my birthday</date>
on <date>9th December</date>
Where more complex or ambiguous expressions are involved, andwhere it is desirable to make more explicit the interpretiveprocesses required, the featurestructure notation described in chapter 18 素性構造 isrecommended. Consider, for example, the followingtemporal expression which occurs in the Scottish TemperanceReview of August 1850, referring to the summer holiday knownin Glasgow simply as ‘the Fair’:
Not only is the city,
<date ana="#gf50">during the Fair</date>, a horrible nucleus of
immorality and wickedness; it sends our multitudes to pollute and
demoralize the country.
For the definition of the ana attribute, see chapter17 簡易分析機能 (in particular 17.2 グローバル属性 for Simple Analyses). It isused here to link the temporal phrase with an interpretation of it. Like most traditional fairs and market days, theGlasgow Fair was established by local custom and could vary from yearto year. Consequently, in order to provide such an interpretation, itis necessary to drawn upon additional information which may or may notbe located in the particular text in question. In this case, it isnecessary at least to know the spatial and temporal context (year andplace) of the fair referred to. These and other features required forthe analysis of this particular temporal expression may be combined together as one featurestructure of type date-analysis:
<fs xml:id="gf50type="date-analysis">
 <f name="event">
  <string>the Fair</string>
 <f name="place">
 <f name="year">
  <numeric value="1850"/>
 <f name="from-value">
 <f name="to-value">
For further discussion of feature structure representation see chapter 18 素性構造. Absolute 日付や時間

The following are examples of absolute temporal expressions.

The university's view
of American affairs produced a stinging attack by Edmund Burke in the
Commons debate of <date when="1775-10-26">26 October 1775</date>
<date when="1993-05-14">Friday, 14 May 1993</date>
It may be useful to categorize a temporal expression which is given in terms of a named event, such as a public holiday for dates, or a named time such as ‘tea time’ or‘matins’:
In New York,
<date type="occasionwhen="--01-01">New Years Day</date> is the
quietest of holidays, <date when="--07-04type="occasion">Independence
Day</date> the most turbulent.
Absolute temporal expressions denoting times which are givenin terms of seconds, minutes, hours, or of well defined events(e.g. ‘noon’, ‘sunset’) may similarly be represented usingthe time element.
The train leaves for Boston at
<time type="twentyfourHourwhen="13:45:00">13:45</time>
At <time type="occasion">sunset</time> we walked to the beach.
The train leaves for Boston at
<time xml:lang="en-UStype="descriptivewhen="13:45:00-05:00"> a quarter of two
</time> より表現力のある正規化
The attributes for normalization of dates and times so fardescribed use a standard format defined by XML Schema Part 2:データ型 Second Edition. This format is widely accepted andhas significant software support. It is essentially a profile of ISO8601 Data elements and interchange formats — Informationinterchange — Representation of dates and times. The ISOstandard provides formats not available in the W3C recommendation. Forexample, the capability to refer to a date by its ordinal date or weekdate, or to a calendar week. In cases where it is desirable to usethese more specialized formats, this module provides a correspondingadditional class of attributes for them:
  • att.datable.iso provides attributes for normalization of elements that contain datable events using the ISO 8601 standard.
    when-isosupplies the value of a date or time in a standard form.
    notBefore-isospecifies the earliest possible date for the event in standard form, e.g. yyyy-mm-dd.
    notAfter-isospecifies the latest possible date for the event in standard form, e.g. yyyy-mm-dd.
    from-isoindicates the starting point of the period in standard form.
    to-isoindicates the ending point of the period in standard form.
  • att.duration.iso attributes for recording normalized temporal durations.
    dur-iso(duration) indicates the length of this element in time.
These attributes rely on the following datatype macros:
  • data.temporal.iso defines the range of attribute values expressing a temporal expression such as a date, a time, or a combination of them, that conform to the international standard Data elements and interchange formats – Information interchange – Representation of dates and times.
  • data.duration.iso defines the range of attribute values available for representation of a duration in time using ISO 8601 standard formats

The when and durattributes are both used to provide astandardized or regularized form for the content of an element,conforming to a subset of the possible formats defined by the relevantinternational standard (ISO 8601) as profiled by XML SchemaPart 2: データ型 Second Edition.

For example:
<date when="1807-06-09">June 9th</date> The
period is approaching which will terminate my present
copartnership. On the <date when="1808-01-01">1st Jany.</date> next,
it expires by its own limitation.

13.4 名前モジュール

Contents « 12 校本 » 14 Tables, Formulae, and Graphics

In the module described bychapter 22 ドキュメンテーション向け要素 a similar method is used to link elementdescriptions to the modules or classes to which they belong, forexample.
Strictly, a suitablevalue such as figurative should be added to the two placenames which are presented periphrastically in the second example here,in order to preserve the distinction indicated by the choice ofrs rather than name to encode them in the firstversion.
See http://earth-info.nga.mil/GandG/wgs84/index.html. The most recentrevision of this standard is known as the Earth Gravity Model1996.
The OGC is an international voluntary consensusstandards organization whose members maintain the Geography MarkupLanguage standard. The OGC coordinates with the ISO TC 211 standardsorganization to maintain consistency between OGC and ISO standardswork. GML is in the process of being adopted as an ISO standard (ISO19136) and is expected to be released as an International Standard in2007.

Copyright TEIコンソーシアム 2007 Licensed under the GPL. Copying and redistribution is permitted and encouraged.
Version 1.0.